Frown lines (also known as glabeller lines) are one of the most prominent signs of aging. These are the lines, often vertical, that appear between or above the eyebrows. These lines occur as a result of the facial muscles interacting with sun-damaged or aging skin.
Frown lines are dynamic and form over time. Repeated contraction and tightening of the facial muscles, such when you are frowning or squinting, cause skin to lose its elasticity, making it become thinner and less able to remain smooth. Because frown lines are created by facial movements such as frowning or squinting, they may even develop even in younger adults. The most common contributing factors that cause frown lines are:
Sun damage is one of the biggest reasons frown lines occur. Exposing skin to the sun’s UV rays breaks down collagen and elastin rapidly, while the muscle movement causes frown lines to form and become more prominent over time.
As we age, we produce less and less collagen and elastin, making skin more prone to wrinkling. The constant contraction and tightening of our facial muscles accelerates the appearance of frown lines as the collagen and elastic dissipates.
Aside from the environmental and biological elements causing frown lines to appear, it’s the actual motion of the muscles that is the real culprit; therefore, excessive frowning causes excessive frown lines on the forehead.
The width of one’s skin is a genetic attribute. Thin skin is more susceptible to wrinkling and sun damage, which makes someone with thin skin more likely to get frown lines than someone with thick skin.
Exposing skin to cigarettes smoke causes a reduction in collagen production, which makes skin more prone to wrinkles, particularly frown lines.
When it comes to treatment of frown lines, both dermal fillers and line erasers are effective. Fillers are used to fill in deep lines and wrinkles, where as neurotoxins are used to prevent the formation of new lines or existing lines from deepening; often times a combination of both is a most effective solution.